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            [图文]陈士军:东海水晶文化的历史渊源         ★★★ 【字体:
          陈士军:东海水晶文化的历史渊源
          作者:陈士军    历史文化来源:本站原创    点击数:6514    更新时间:2013/11/4    

           

          东海水晶文化的历史渊源

          陈士军

           

          东海,得天地日月之精华,萃山川江河之灵魂。水晶的光芒从亿万年前的时空中穿越而来,璀璨绽放。从江苏省第一个旧石器遗址大贤应遗址、新沂良渚文化遗址和海州汉墓群出土的水晶削刮器、水晶饰品和水晶雕刻件推算,东海水晶的发现和利用,早在一万年前的旧石器时代就开始了,汉代时已形成初步加工规模。东海是我国水晶开采和水晶工艺品主要发源地和产区之一。

          东海水晶历史文化源远流长。据《江南通志》记载:“牛山(今东海县城所在地),在海州(今连云港市)西北七十里,产水晶石!20世纪70年代,东海县山左口大贤庄遗址出土的“水晶砾石刮石器”,距今约一万年以上。

          20世纪60年代初,在海州北门外新海发电厂二期工程扩建时,出土了清代水晶饰品“水晶顶冠”,“水晶花翎插管”等,说明清朝政府把东海水晶制成工艺品,作为官员顶戴上的标志,用于官阶。现存连云港市博物馆。清光绪、宣统年间,在东海县房山因挖水晶,先后两次发生大规模械斗事件,打死打伤多人。反映了在100多年前,东海人民为挖水晶而拼命相争的事实。后海州官下令“不准再挖”。

          1978年,对海州小焦山进行挖掘,在戴胜墓出土了汉代两只“水晶小饰品”,显示出汉代水晶工艺品的风格。说明当时人们把它视为“观赏石”加以收藏,现存连云港市博物馆。同在汉代,东海境内的曲阳故县,今为东海县的曲阳乡和近邻的新沂花厅浪渚遗址出土了18棵“鼓形水晶珠”, 造型雅典,别具一格。反映了两千多年前东海水晶文化的历史价值。

          1982年,东海县西朱范村农民王绍达在建房取沙时,出土了清末民国初期64枚水晶章料,其中有两枚水晶镌刻清晰的印章,一枚叫“瘦人”,另一枚叫“云台山是旧家乡”!笆萑恕庇≌赂4.6厘米,长3.4厘米、宽2厘米,呈椭圆形,为篆书。现存东海县博物馆。反映了清末民国时期东海水晶工艺品的历史文化水准。

          新中国成立后,民间适用性需求除加工制作水晶眼镜外,水晶工艺品基本作为奢侈品在民间生产加工。国家对东海的水晶资源开采、利用非常重视,从1953年起就委托供销社为国家代收购水晶,成立了“地方国营东海水晶105矿”专门从事水晶的开采、收购、管理等工作,东海水晶年开采量常年维持在400-600吨,占全国的三分之一。

          改革开放后,东海人民充分利用水晶及硅资源优势,积极发展水晶文化产业及硅系列产品加工业,使其逐步成为东海经济发展中的支柱产业。20世纪80年代,东海水晶文化进入了一个新的发展时期。在两千多年历史文化的积淀中,东海水晶文化表现艺术,在全面继承玉雕的技法上,锐意创新。以江苏省工艺美术大师沈明川为代表,他发明的“局部喷砂”新工艺,移植于水晶雕刻,被全国广泛采用,使水晶艺术文化表现形式大放异彩,属国内首创。东海水晶文化传承是玉石文化的延生和再发展,是我国民族传统文化的传承与创新。水晶(摩氏7-7.5度)硬度高于玉(摩氏46度),同时天然水晶拥有质地、形态、色彩及其它玉石所不具备的丰富包裹体、水胆等特点。只有遵循传统文化规则,结合现代创意理念,才能创意设计出有深刻文化内涵的形、色、意兼备的艺术品。特别是进入20世纪90年代,中国工艺美术大师、中国水晶雕刻第一人仵应汶,充分运用传统“圆雕、浮雕、透雕、线刻、反雕、借景、借色、借形、阴雕、阳雕、虚实兼并”等艺术手法。并结合现代镶嵌工艺点缀及亚光、亮光等技法,琢磨抛亮天然水晶的新思路、新工艺、新手法与一体。这一创举,填补了中国“天然水晶艺术雕刻”作品史的一项空白,领先并主导着中国乃至世界“天然水晶艺术雕刻”作品工艺的新潮流。其作品《三教九流图》,被作为国礼赠送俄罗斯总统普京。

          近几年以来,东海建起了国内唯一以水晶为主题、涵盖水晶形成展示、水晶文化发展、水晶藏品展陈等为一体的综合性功能博物馆——中国东海水晶博物馆;建成了全国首家水晶文化创意产业园,成立了全国首家以研究水晶文化为主的社团组织——江苏省水晶文化研究会;出版发行了全国唯一的水晶专业杂志《东海水晶》;启动建设了占地面积452亩的全国最大水晶交易市场——中国水晶城;拥有太平洋、晶海洋、中材高新、沃鑫、福东、康达等硅工业规模企业500多家,让东海跃居“世界东方的石英中心”和“中国高新材料硅产业基地”。东海也借助大自然的精妙杰作,实现了以“水晶为媒介,让世界了解东海;以水晶为桥梁,让东海走向世界”的蝶变。

          水晶文化的不断升温,奠定了东海成为“文化晶都”的地位,2009年在江苏省所有建制县中,东海县惟一捧得“全国文化先进县”的桂冠!拔袷、包容、创新、开拓”新时期的“东海精神”更加诠释了水晶深层次的文化内涵。从中国(世界)首枚“东海水晶”邮票全国首创发行,到东海成功举办了十二届水晶节,举办了全国水晶楹联大赛、六届“晶城杯”江苏省水晶工艺品大赛,在北京人民大会堂举办了中国天然水晶工艺品“百花奖”评选活动。以水晶为题材的影视、戏剧、诗歌、散文、美术、书法创作如火如荼,电影《水晶心》、电视连续剧《血染紫晶》、《水晶缘》等影响广泛。四集电视戏曲片《春打六九头》在央视戏曲频道播出。现代吕剧《红丝带获江苏省“五个一工程奖”。围绕水晶创作的主题歌曲《水晶之恋》荣获全国城市形象歌曲大赛金奖、《福如东!吩谌。从央视的《水晶传奇》到2013年《央视寻宝——走进东!,东海水晶地藏王菩萨造像被评为“最具历史文化价值”的藏品。从“江苏符号”全球征集,到“东海水晶”成功入选,这一路无不凝炼和打造东海水晶独具的文化个性、文化品位和文化内涵。

          陈士军,19726月出生。本科学历。江苏省水晶文化研究会副秘书长 、东海县文化广电体育局工会副主席、东海县新闻出版局办公室主任、政工师。先后在《中国文化报》、中国文化市场网、《科学教育研究》、全省新闻出版依法行政理论与实践研讨会、江苏文化周讯等报刊发表文学作品和理论文章30余篇。

          (编辑:王军先)

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